Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Jesus as the Sun throughout History by D. Jesus as the Sun throughout History by D. From the earliest times of Christian history, Jesus Christ has been identified with the sun. This fact is readily demonstrated through the study of ancient texts, including the Bible and works of the early Church fathers, as well as Christian traditions, rituals, architecture and artifacts.
From a wide variety of sources, it is clear that associating, identifying and equat From the earliest times of Christian history, Jesus Christ has been identified with the sun. From a wide variety of sources, it is clear that associating, identifying and equating Christ with the sun began in ancient times and has continued abundantly over the many centuries since then. Includes many primary sources and quotes from credentialed authorities. Jesus as the Sun throughout History examines ancient texts, including the Bible and works of the early Church fathers, as well as other writings, art, artifacts and traditions to demonstrate that Jesus has been perceived as the sun, both spiritually and as the actual, physical solar orb, many times over the centuries by numerous people, including religious authorities and common people.
Why were the Christians in ancient times considered to be "sun worshippers? Jesus as the Sun throughout History uses primary sources and the works of highly credentialed authorities to demonstrate that the equation of Christ with the sun - both the power behind the sun and the material sun itself - has occurred since the earliest times and is not a "modern" phenomenon. This ebook contains over sources with foonotes, carefully citing all quotations and references.
Church Father Tertullian fl. Kindle Edition , 75 pages. Published January 16th by Stellar House Publishing. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Jesus as the Sun throughout History , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Jesus as the Sun throughout History. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Dec 03, johnathan adams rated it it was amazing. Awesome This is a must read wish I can get it in paperback.
Very enlightened everybody need to get this book. This book will open your eyes to the truth. Then, in the middle of the twentieth century, the complete, unabridged, original Sumerian text of Inanna's Descent was finally translated,   revealing that, instead of ending with Dumuzid's resurrection as had long been assumed, the text actually ended with Dumuzid's death. Frazer and others also saw Tammuz's Greek equivalent Adonis as a "dying-and-rising god",    despite the fact that he is never described as rising from the dead in any extant Greco-Roman writings  and the only possible allusions to his supposed resurrection come from late, highly ambiguous statements made by Christian authors.
In the late twentieth century, scholars began to severely criticize the designation of "dying-and-rising god" altogether. Smith concluded in Mircea Eliade 's Encyclopedia of Religion that "The category of dying and rising gods, once a major topic of scholarly investigation, must now be understood to have been largely a misnomer based on imaginative reconstructions and exceedingly late or highly ambiguous texts.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jesus has been compared to a broad variety of figures from various mythological traditions within the Mediterranean Basin , including in rows from left to right Dionysus , Mithras , Sol Invictus , Osiris , Asclepius , Attis , and Adonis. Jesus , Historicity of Jesus , and Historical Jesus.
Murdock D. M. - Jesus as the sun throughout history - Free PDF
Mithras rising from the rock National Museum of Romanian History. Mithras born from the rock c. Christian statue of Jesus as the " Good Shepherd " c. Late Roman copy of a fifth-century BC Greek statue showing Hermes , the god of travelers, carrying a ram over his shoulders in his role as Kriophoros the "Ram-Bearer". Rank-Raglan mythotype and Hero. Price , a former fundamentalist apologist turned atheist who says the existence of Jesus cannot be ruled out, but is less probable than non-existence, agrees that his perspective runs against the views of the majority of scholars.
I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more. Evidence and Argument or Mythicist Myths? Moreover, it has not been produced by anyone or anything with any reasonable relationship to critical scholarship. It belongs to the fantasy lives of people who used to be fundamentalist Christians. They did not believe in critical scholarship then, and they do not do so now.
I cannot find any evidence that any of them have adequate professional qualifications. The point I shall argue below is that, the agreed evidentiary practices of the historians of Yeshua, despite their best efforts, have not been those of sound historical practice".
In a later euhemerized retelling of the myth of Pentheus from the third century BC, however, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus states that Dionysus crossed the Hellespont and "defeated the Thracian forces in battle. Lycurgus, whom he took prisoner, he blinded, tortured in every conceivable way and finally crucified. Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus: Series Graeca , The Historical Reliability of the Gospels. On the Historicity of Jesus: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian.
The irreligious assault on the historicity of Jesus". Retrieved 17 June Ehrman 22 March Burridge; Graham Gould Jesus Now and Then. Akenson 29 September The Invention of the Bible and the Talmuds. University of Chicago Press. The Cambridge Companion to Jesus. Jesus as a Figure in History: Westminster John Knox Press. Jesus in History, Thought, and Culture: Entries A - J. Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence.
That he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be, since both Josephus and Tacitus The Historical Jesus in Context. The Oxford classical dictionary. Wells and Carrier contend that sources such as Tacitus and others, which were written decades after the supposed events, include no independent traditions that relate to Jesus, and hence can provide no confirmation of historical facts about him. In Jesus Outside the New Testament , mainstream scholar Van Voorst considers references to Jesus in classical writings, Jewish writings, hypothetical sources of the canonical Gospels, and extant Christian writings outside the New Testament.
Van Voorst concludes that non-Christian sources provide "a small but certain corroboration of certain New Testament historical traditions on the family background, time of life, ministry, and death of Jesus", as well as "evidence of the content of Christian preaching that is independent of the New Testament", while extra-biblical Christian sources give access to "some important information about the earliest traditions on Jesus".
However, New Testament sources remain central for "both the main lines and the details about Jesus' life and teaching". Early Christianity was wildly diverse, with proto-orthodoxy and " heretical " views like gnosticism alongside each other. According to Doherty, the rapid growth of early Christian communities and the great variety of ideas cannot be explained by a single missionary effort, but points to parallel developments, which arose at various places and competed for support. Paul's arguments against rival apostles also point to this diversity.
Doherty notes that, with the conquests of Alexander the Great , the Greek culture and language spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean world, influencing the already existing cultures there. Mainstream scholars have noted the extent and significance of Jewish belief in a chief angel acting as a heavenly mediator during the Second Temple period , [q 73] as well as the similarities between Jesus and this chief celestial angel. According to Carrier, originally "Jesus was the name of a celestial being, subordinate to God".
He was also God's celestial high priest Hebrews 2: Philo says this being was identified as the figure named Jesus in the Book of Zechariah. According to mythicists, Christianity originated from a Jewish sect [q 77] in a milieu where some Jews practised a form of proto-gnosticism [ citation needed ] —seeking salvation by revealed gnosis —via a mediator between God and humans, i.
From the cultus of Paul, a divergent form of this salvation theology was later promoted for non-Jews. According to Doherty, a somewhat similar idea to the Greek Logos was found in Judaism, where Wisdom , a personified part of God, brought knowledge of God and the Law. Mainstream scholarship disagrees with this interpretation. According to Van Voorst, "The argument that Jesus never existed, but was invented by the Christian movement around the year , goes back to Enlightenment times, when the historical-critical study of the past was born," and may have originated with Lord Bolingbroke, an English deist.
While not denying that Jesus existed, he did argue that the miracles in the New Testament were mythical retellings of normal events as supernatural happenings. This rationalist perspective was in direct opposition to the supernaturalist view that the bible was accurate both historically and spiritually. German Bruno Bauer, who taught at the University of Bonn , took Strauss' arguments further and became the first author to systematically argue that Jesus did not exist. The validity of the claims in the book have been greatly criticized by Christ myth proponents like Richard Carrier and largely dismissed by biblical scholars.
Starting in the s, English poet and author Gerald Massey became interested in Egyptology and reportedly taught himself Egyptian hieroglyphics at the British Museum. His other major work, Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World, was published shortly before his death in In the s and s, a group of scholars associated with the University of Amsterdam , known in German scholarship as the Radical Dutch school, rejected the authenticity of the Pauline epistles and took a generally negative view of the Bible's historical value. During the early 20th century, several writers published arguments against Jesus' historicity, often drawing on the work of liberal theologians, who tended to deny any value to sources for Jesus outside the New Testament and limited their attention to Mark and the hypothetical Q source.
It is therefore no wonder that at the beginning of this century there has been a revival of the eighteenth and nineteenth century view that Jesus never existed". The work of social anthropologist Sir James George Frazer has had an influence on various myth theorists, although Frazer himself believed that Jesus existed.
This work became the basis of many later authors who argued that the story of Jesus was a fiction created by Christians. After a number of people claimed that he was a myth theorist, in the expanded edition of The Golden Bough he expressly stated that his theory assumed a historical Jesus. In , Scottish Member of Parliament John Mackinnon Robertson argued that Jesus never existed, but was an invention by a first-century messianic cult. Robertson viewed references to the twelve apostles and the institution of the Eucharist as stories that must have developed later among gentile believers who were converted by Jewish evangelists like Paul.
In Mead's view, this would mean that the Christian gospels are mythical. Remsburg thought that there was good reason to believe that the historical Jesus existed, but that the "Christ of Christianity" was a mythological creation. Also in , German philosophy Professor Christian Heinrich Arthur Drews wrote The Christ Myth to argue that Christianity had been a Jewish Gnostic cult that spread by appropriating aspects of Greek philosophy and life-death-rebirth deities.
Drews' work found fertile soil in the Soviet Union , where Marxist—Leninist atheism was the official doctrine of the state. Soviet leader Lenin argued that it was imperative in the struggle against religious obscurantists to form a union with people like Drews. In , British philosopher Bertrand Russell stated in his lecture Why I Am Not a Christian that "historically it is quite doubtful that Jesus existed, and if he did we do not know anything about him, so that I am not concerned with the historical question, which is a very difficult one", though Russell did nothing to further develop the idea.
Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard was convinced that Jesus never existed, stating that Christianity evolved from the " R6 Implant ": There was no Christ! The Roman Catholic Church , through watching the dramatizations of people picked up some little fragments of R6". The French philosopher Paul-Louis Couchoud,  published in the s and s, but was a predecessor for contemporary mythicists.
Robert Price mentions Couchoud's comment on the Christ Hymn, one of the relics of the Christ cults to which Paul converted. Couchoud noted that in this hymn the name Jesus was given to the Christ after his torturous death, implying that there cannot have been a ministry by a teacher called Jesus. George Albert Wells — , a professor of German, revived the interest in the Christ myth theory.
In his early work,  including Did Jesus Exist? The Evidence Channel 4: Atheist philosopher and scholar Michael Martin supported his thesis, claiming: Later, Wells concluded that a historical Jesus figure did exist and was a Galilean preacher, whose teachings were preserved in the Q document, a hypothetical common source for the gospels of Matthew and Luke.
Van Voorst said that with this argument Wells had performed an about-face. In his book Cutting Jesus Down to Size ,  Wells clarified that he believes the Gospels represent the fusion of two originally independent streams: In Van Voorst gave an overview of proponents of the "Nonexistence Hypothesis" and their arguments, and eight arguments against this hypothesis as put forward by Wells and his predecessors: According to Graham Stanton, writing in , Wells advanced the most sophisticated version of the Christ myth theory, noting that "[t]his intriguing theory rests on several pillars, each of which is shaky.
His works were not discussed by New Testament scholars, because it was "not considered to be original, and all his main points were thought to have been refuted long time ago, for reasons which were very well known. Canadian writer Earl Doherty born was introduced to the Christ myth theme by a lecture by Wells in the s. Paul and other writers of the earliest existing proto-Christian documents did not believe in Jesus as a person who was incarnated on Earth in a historical setting, rather they believed in Jesus as a heavenly being who suffered his sacrificial death in the lower spheres of heaven, where he was crucified by demons and then was subsequently resurrected by God.
This mythological Jesus was not based on a historical Jesus, but rather on an exegesis of the Old Testament in the context of Jewish-Hellenistic religious syncretism and what the early authors believed to be mystical visions of a risen Jesus.
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Doherty agrees with Bauckham that the earliest Christology was already a "high Christology," that is, Jesus was an incarnation of the pre-existent Christ, but deems it "hardly credible" that such a belief could develop in such a short time among Jews. According to Doherty, the nucleus of this historicised Jesus of the Gospels can be found in the Jesus-movement which wrote the Q source.
New Testament scholar Bart Ehrman quotes Doherty from The Jesus Puzzle as maintaining that it was Paul's view that Jesus' death took place in the spiritual not the earthly realm, : In a book criticizing the Christ myth theory, New Testament scholar Maurice Casey describes Doherty as "perhaps the most influential of all the mythicists",  but one who is unable to understand the ancient texts he uses in his arguments.
Price born was a fellow of the Jesus Seminar , a group of writers and scholars who study the historicity of Jesus and who argue that the Christian image of Christ is a theological construct into which traces of Jesus of Nazareth have been woven. Five Views , in which he acknowledges that he stands against the majority view of scholars, but cautions against attempting to settle the issue by appeal to the majority.
In Deconstructing Jesus , Price points out that "the Jesus Christ of the New Testament is a composite figure", out of which a broad variety of historical Jesuses can be reconstructed, any one of which may have been the real Jesus, but not all of them together. According to Price, the accounts of Jesus are derived from Jewish writings,  which show Greek influences and similarities with Pagan saviour deities. Christianity is a historicized synthesis of mainly Egyptian, Jewish, and Greek mythologies. Price argues that these "varying dates are the residue of various attempts to anchor an originally mythic or legendary Jesus in more or less recent history".
Thompson born , Professor emeritus of theology at the University of Copenhagen , is a leading biblical minimalist of the Old Testament. For example, he argues that the resurrection of Jesus is taken directly from the story of the dying and rising god, Dionysus. Thompson coedited the contributions from a diverse range of scholars in the book Is This Not the Carpenter?: The Question of the Historicity of the Figure of Jesus.
Neither establishing the historicity of a historical Jesus nor possessing an adequate warrant for dismissing it, our purpose is to clarify our engagement with critical historical and exegetical methods. In a online article, Thompson defended his qualifications to address New Testament issues and he rejected the label of "mythicist" and reiterated his position that the issue of Jesus' existence cannot be determined one way or the other. Thompson contends that the present state of New Testament scholarship viz.
Bart Ehrman "is such that an established scholar should present his Life of Jesus, without considering whether this figure, in fact, lived as a historical person" and that such assumptions "reflect a serious problem regarding the historical quality of scholarship in biblical studies". In , the Irish Dominican priest and theologian Thomas L. Memoir of a Discovery.
In this book, Brodie, who previously had published academic works on the Hebrew prophets, argued that the Gospels are essentially a rewriting of the stories of Elijah and Elisha when viewed as a unified account in the Books of Kings. This view lead Brodie to the conclusion that Jesus is mythical. In response to Brodie's publication of his view that Jesus was mythical, the Dominican order banned him from writing and lecturing, although he was allowed to stay on as a brother of the Irish Province, which continued to care for him.
According to Norton, they are "a memoir of a series of significant moments or events" in Brodie's life that reinforced "his core conviction" that neither Jesus nor Paul of Tarsus were historical. American independent scholar  Richard Carrier born reviewed Doherty's work on the origination of Jesus  and eventually concluded that the evidence actually favored the core Doherty thesis.
According to Carrier, many studies by mainstream scholars have shown that the current consensus of a historical Jesus is based on invalid methods. Carrier argues in his book On the Historicity of Jesus: Why We Might Have Reason for Doubt that there is insufficient Bayesian probability , that is evidence, to believe in the existence of Jesus. Furthermore, Carrier argues that the Jesus figure was probably originally known only through private revelations and hidden messages in scripture which were then crafted into a historical figure to communicate the claims of the gospels allegorically.
These allegories then started to be believed as fact during the struggle for control of the Christian churches of the first century. His methodology was reviewed by Aviezer Tucker, a prior advocate of using Bayesian techniques in history. Tucker expressed some sympathy for Carrier's view of the Gospels, stating: However, Tucker argued that historians have been able to use theories about the transmission and preservation of information to identify reliable parts of the Gospels. He said that "Carrier is too dismissive of such methods because he is focused on hypotheses about the historical Jesus rather than on the best explanations of the evidence".
Gullotta, reviewing Carrier's On the Historicity of Jesus: Why We Might Have Reason for Doubt , says he finds Carrier's arguments "problematic and unpersuasive", his use of Bayesian probabilities "unnecessarily complex" and criticizes Carrier's "lack of evidence, strained readings and troublesome assumptions. Allegro advanced the theory that stories of early Christianity originated in a shamanistic Essene clandestine cult centered around the use of hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Following Paul Vulliaud, Dubourg emphasized the importance of gematria in showing the coherence of his back-translated text. He concludes that Paul is as mythical as Jesus. One Hundred Years Before Christ. A Study in Creative Mythology , argued that Jesus lived years before the accepted dates, and was a teacher of the Essenes. Was the "Original Jesus" a Pagan God? The book has been negatively received by scholars, and also by Christ mythicists.
Influenced by Massey and Higgins, Alvin Boyd Kuhn — argued an Egyptian etymology to the Bible that the gospels were symbolic rather than historic and that church leaders started to misinterpret the New Testament in the third century. According to Harpur, in the second or third centuries the early church created the fictional impression of a literal and historic Jesus and then used forgery and violence to cover up the evidence.
Price also wrote a negative review, saying that he did not agree that the Egyptian parallels were as forceful as Harpur thought. David Fitzgerald has self-published several works in defense of the Christ myth theory, including Nailed: Mything in Action , Vols. Ehrman notes that "the mythicists have become loud, and thanks to the Internet they've attracted more attention". According to Derek Murphy, the documentaries The God Who Wasn't There and Zeitgeist raised interest for the Christ myth theory with a larger audience and gave the topic a large coverage on the Internet.
According to Ehrman, mythicism has a growing appeal "because these deniers of Jesus are at the same time denouncers of religion". In modern scholarship, the Christ myth theory is a fringe theory and finds virtually no support from scholars. According to New Testament scholar Bart D.
Ehrman, most people who study the historical period of Jesus believe that he did exist and do not write in support of the Christ myth theory. Maurice Casey , theologian and scholar of New Testament and early Christianity, stated that the belief among professors that Jesus existed is generally completely certain.
Jesus as the Sun throughout History
According to Casey, the view that Jesus did not exist is "the view of extremists", "demonstrably false" and "professional scholars generally regard it as having been settled in serious scholarship long ago". In his book Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels , classical historian and popular author Michael Grant concluded that "modern critical methods fail to support the Christ-myth theory".
If we apply to the New Testament, as we should, the same sort of criteria as we should apply to other ancient writings containing historical material, we can no more reject Jesus' existence than we can reject the existence of a mass of pagan personages whose reality as historical figures is never questioned. Joseph Hoffmann, who had created the Jesus Project , which included both mythicists and historicists to investigate the historicity of Jesus, wrote that an adherent to the Christ myth theory asked to set up a separate section of the project for those committed to the theory.
Hoffmann felt that to be committed to mythicism signaled a lack of necessary skepticism and he noted that most members of the project did not reach the mythicist conclusion. Critics of the Christ myth theory question the competence of its supporters. Few of these mythicists are actually scholars trained in ancient history, religion, biblical studies or any cognate field, let alone in the ancient languages generally thought to matter for those who want to say something with any degree of authority about a Jewish teacher who allegedly lived in first-century Palestine.
In a response, Thompson questioned the polemical nature of this qualification, pointing at his own academic standing and expertise. According to Thompson, Ehrman "has attributed to my book arguments and principles which I had never presented, certainly not that Jesus had never existed". Thompson questions Ehrman's qualifications in regard to Old Testamentical writings and research, as well as his competence to recognize the problems involved in "reiterated narrative" and "the historicity of a literary figure", stating that Ehrman had "thoroughly [ Maurice Casey has criticized the mythicists, pointing out their complete ignorance of how modern critical scholarship actually works.
He also criticizes mythicists for their frequent assumption that all modern scholars of religion are Protestant fundamentalists of the American variety, insisting that this assumption is not only totally inaccurate, but also exemplary of the mythicists' misconceptions about the ideas and attitudes of mainstream scholars. Questioning the mainstream view appears to have consequences for one's job perspectives. These views are so extreme and so unconvincing to Few scholars have bothered to criticise Christ myth theories. Robert Van Voorst has written "Contemporary New Testament scholars have typically viewed Christ myth arguments as so weak or bizarre that they relegate them to footnotes, or often ignore them completely The theory of Jesus' nonexistence is now effectively dead as a scholarly question.
Maier , former Professor of Ancient History at Western Michigan University and current professor emeritus in the Department of History there has stated "Anyone who uses the argument that Jesus never existed is simply flaunting his ignorance. In this book, Bart Ehrman surveys the arguments "mythicists" have made against the existence of Jesus since the idea was first mooted at the end of the 18th century. To the objection that there are no contemporary Roman records of Jesus' existence, Ehrman points out that such records exist for almost no one and there are mentions of Christ in several Roman works of history from only decades after the death of Jesus.
Evidence and Argument or Mythicist Myths? The authors proposing such opinions might be competent, decent, honest individuals, but the views they present are demonstrably wrong Jesus is better documented and recorded than pretty much any non-elite figure of antiquity. If 40 per cent believe in the Jesus myth, this is a sign that the Church has failed to communicate with the general public.
An Evangelical Response to the Cosmic Christ Idea , challenging the key ideas lying at the foundation of Harpur's thesis. Porter and Bedard conclude that there is sufficient evidence for the historicity of Jesus and assert that Harpur is motivated to promote "universalistic spirituality". Since , several English-language documentaries have focused—at least in part—on the Christ myth theory:. The named notes after this sentence contain named references; to prevent errors, they are stored here before the notes-reflist. Per biblical criticism , studies of the Old and New Testaments are often independent of each other, largely due to the difficulty of any single scholar having a sufficient grasp of the many languages required or of the cultural background for the different periods in which texts had their origins.
Cognate disciplines include but are not limited to archaeology, anthropology, folklore, linguistics, Oral Tradition studies, and historical and religious studies. Arnal , pp. Niehoff , p. They all had stories about them set in human history on earth. Yet none of them ever actually existed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For discussion of Jesus in a comparative mythological and religious context, see Jesus in comparative mythology. For the body of myths associated with Christianity, see Christian mythology. For the scholarly study of the life of Jesus, see Historical Jesus. For analysis of information supporting the historical existence of Jesus, see Historicity of Jesus and Sources for the historicity of Jesus.
For the debate over the validity of stories in the New Testament, see Historical reliability of the Gospels. The Resurrection of Christ by Carl Heinrich Bloch —some mythicists see this as a case of a dying-and-rising god. Life in art Depiction Jesuism. Textual criticism , Historical criticism , Biblical hermeneutics , and Quest for the historical Jesus.
Christology , Christian apologetics , Christian fundamentalism , Biblical literalism , and Evangelicalism. Pauline epistles and Authorship of the Pauline epistles. Origins of Christianity and Gnosticism. Diversity in early Christian theology. Religious syncretism and Mytheme.
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Notes with nested refs. Chris Keith and Anthony LeDonne eds. Eerdmans, , pp. Prometheus Books, , pp. The Question of Criteria Louisville. Previous Discussion and New Proposals Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, Neither God nor Man: Age of Reason Publications, , vii—viii. Christianity in the Making.
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The Bart Ehrman Blog. Retrieved November 2, Pagels , p. From there it could mean a group, school, or sect differentiated from others Acts 5: By extension, it could speak of a faction 1 Cor. Doctrinal and social aspects were tightly bound. But in 2 Pet. The presence of heresy, therefore, is a contradiction both to apostolic teaching and Christian community.
On the other hand, no theologian seems to be able to bring himself to admit that the question of the historicity of Jesus must be judged to be an open one. It appears to me that the theologians are not living up to their responsibility as scholars when they refuse to discuss the possibility that even the existence of the Jesus of the Gospels can be legitimately called into question.
Historicizing the Figure of Jesus, the Messiah: Bart Ehrman, Maurice Casey] the approach taken by the scholars agreeing with the consensus view is uncritically grounded in unjustified presuppositions, and sometimes appears as unprofessional and unscholarly The entire field of Jesus studies has thus been left without any valid method.
The truth may not rest in the middle. The truth may not rest with the majority. Every theory and individual argument must be evaluated on its own. But it should be examined anew a task I'll undertake in the next volume [i. On the Historicity of Jesus ]. Ehrman , pp. Robertson does not exclude the possibility of an historical Jesus. Robertson , Christianity and Mythology , revised edition, p. The Jesus ben-Pandera of the Talmud may have led a movement round which the survivals of an ancient solar or other cult gradually clustered. He is not the founder of anything that we can recognize as Christianity.